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7 years and younger

  1. This is the time to introduce basic exercises with little to no resistance/weight.
    1. Body Control Exercise
      1. Single Leg Balance Exercises
      2. Hopping/ Skipping
      3. Running Form/Mechanics
  2. Proper exercise technique should be taught and emphasized.
  3. Stretching should be introduced (Static Stretches Only).
  4.  Jogging and bicycling are great sources of cardiovascular training.
    1. General Playing
  5. Keep resistance training volume low (i.e. push-ups, pull-ups, crunches, mini­ squats).

8-10 years old

  1. Start to progress the number of exercises
  2. Maintain a good balance of upper and lower extremity exercises
  3. Continue to progress flexibility and cardiovascular exercises
  4. Gradually begin increasing resistance and volume.
  5. Preadolescent children should not lift maximal or near maximal weights.
  6. Athlete should begin by performing 3-4 sets of 10-15 repetitions (i.e. bench press, seated rows, biceps curls, triceps presses, leg presses, hamstring curls, calf raises  forward lunges).
    1. Weight should be minimal-Focus on Form

11-13 years old

  1. Continue to progressively increase the load on each exercise.
  2. Introduce basic proprioceptive drills (i.e. balance on unstable surface, single leg balancing, tilt board squats, rhythmic stabilization).
  3. Begin to introduce more advanced exercises with little or no weight with gradual increase in resistance.
  4. Progress to full body workouts (i.e. latissimus pulldowns, hip abduction, adduction, flexion and extension, knee extension, wall squats, lateral step ups).
  5. Athlete should begin by performing 3-4 sets of 10-15 repetitions
  6. Introduce core stabilization exercise

14-15 years old

  1. Continue to focus on basic and emphasize technique
  2. Begin progression of advanced and sport specific exercises (i.e. rotator cuff and scapular strengthening)
  3. Increase volume to 2-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions
  4. Introduce dynamic stretching
  5. Introduce and advance core stabilization activities
  6. Introduce agility and running drills (i.e. cone and sport cord drills)
  7. Initiate light plyometric drills
    1. Upper extremity: two hand chest pass, two hand overhead pass, two handed lateral pass,
    2. Lower extremity: Leg press jumps, jumping in place, 2 leg box jumps, lunge jumps.

16 years old and up

  1. Child can begin basic adult program if they demonstrate a good understanding of proper exercise technique/principles.
  2. Continue to progress strengthening exercises (i.e. deltoid press, dumbbell fiys, dumbbell pullovers, squats)
  3. Introduce thrower’s ten program for rotator cuff/periscapular strengthening.
  4. Incorporate eccentric and high speed training (i.e. exercise tubing, sports cord, tape hops, box drills)
  5. Advance dynamic stabilization drills (i.e. perturbations, lunges onto unstable surface)
  6. Advance plyometric drills
    1. Upper extremity: 1 hand throws 90/90 degrees, overhead dribbling, eccentric throw and catch of weighted ball
    2. Lower extremity: rotational jumps, bounding single leg activities